Presentations - oil and gas
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Introduction to Distributed Fibre Optic Sensing Technology, Applications and Advancements
Craig Milne, Silixa
Presentation from joint technical meeting with IMechE , 12th February 2020
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UK Well Life Cycle Integrity Guidelines update
Steve Bedford, BP
Presentation from joint technical meeting with EI, 12th March 2019
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Downhole metallurgy and corrosion - from the first pipe to current challenges
Ed Wade, MetalEcosse Ltd
Presentation from technical meeting of 27th November 2018
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Delivering Competitive Wells
Katy Heidenreich, Operations Optimisation Manager, Oil & Gas UK and Mariesha Jaffray, Continuous Improvement Manager, Oil & Gas UK
The presentation describes how the Competitive Well Delivery initiative fits with the MER UK Strategy and outline the challenges involved. It also explain how this initiative intends to contribute to realising the full potential of the UKCS within the lifetime of existing infrastructure.
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The UNEXMIN project
James Tweedie, RCI/4DCoders project group
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Managing Corrosion Under Insulation using novel technologies
Rebecca Allison, Asset Integrity Solution Centre Manager, The Oil & Gas Technology Centre
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Latest Experience Assessing Corrosion Under Insulation
Bill Brown and Mike Dixon of TRAC
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INEOS Shale, Keeping the lights on, Keeping the heating on - 11th January 2017
John Hunter CEng, MIMMM, Wells Team Leader
The presentation gives an insight to INEOS, covering its activities in the oil and gas sector. The potential for shale gas in Scotland is described along with the various legislative requirements for the extraction of energy resources from below the surface. Independent assessments of the evidence, which concluded that shale gas development can be undertaken safely, are covered. The remainder of the presentation covers the technical aspects of drilling wells, hydraulic fracturing and site development. The presentation concludes with how industry addresses the concerns raised by the public and the community benefits of shale gas development.
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UK Well & Offshore Process Plant Integrity Seminar - 13th May 2015
OGUK Well Integrity Guidelines - Steve Bedford CEng, FIMMM, FGS
The presentation describes how the guidance was developed and gives an overview of the contents.
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Offshore Process Plant Integrity & Health & Safety Law - An Overview - Andy Duncan, IOMMM, CEng
The presentation gives an introduction to UK Health & Safety Law and Regulation with respect to plant integrity management.
January 2014: Old King Coal - New Tricks for the Oil and Gas Industry
Mike Richards, Aberdeen Drilling Management
The paper looks at the experience of the coal industry both in the UK and overseas to examine whether mining knowledge can be applied to tight formations in the oil industry. It looks at the Coal Bed Methane production in the US and compares it with the UK’s very limited success. The paper comments on the induced seismisityand subsidence. Longwallmining has been practiced under the sea in the UK both in North East and North West England without major flooding events. The presentation concludes by looking at the remaining resources of coal in the UK to examine if these can be used for both energy extraction and carbon sequestration without the necessity of mining in the traditional sense using oilfield technology.
October 2013: Presidential Address: The next generation
Alex Crossland, EV Offshore
What major issues will affect the energy industry in the future and will we have the people needed?
February 2012: Geotechnical challenges in mining
Nick Watson, Technical Director, Wardell Armstrong
Nick is an engineering geologist who has many years experience working on a variety of mining projects across the world. His presentation addresses the various geotechnical issues associated with mining operations and mineral processing illustrating with some case studies.
December 2011: Drilling to Profit - Extended Reach Drilling
Iain Hutchison BEng (Hons) CEng, Director of Engineering, Merlin ERD Ltd
Extended Reach Drilling (ERD) Technology has advanced rapidly in recent years and is now developing reserves almost 12 km (38,000 ft) from the wellhead. Innovative Engineering techniques and equipment deliver wells that only a few years ago were deemed uneconomic, too risky or impossible. Mature North Sea platforms are well placed to benefit from this technology.
This presentation reveals latest advances and achievements in ERD and how this technology can be applied to:
· boost profits
· defer abandonment liabilities
· drill beyond the perceived limit of existing facilities
· accelerate 1st oil
· increase ultimate recovery by 10%
· reduce environmental impact
November 2011: Passivhaus - Ecological and Environmental Design
Professor Deveci , Robert Gordon University
Professor Deveci RIBA, FRIAS heads a housing and urban design unit at the School of Architecture and Built environment, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen. He is a leader in the adoption of the low energy including the ‘passivhaus' standards and one of its pioneers of ecological and environmental design.
He has won a series of prestigious design awards from the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland (RIAS), Scottish Design and the Saltire Society Awards, as well as regional design awards.
In his presentation, professor Deveci presents his most recent research and practice based initiatives, including the first affordable social passive housing design, in Scotland and explains how he has endeavoured to bring new thinking to projects commissioned by housing associations, local councils and other housing providers.
October 2011: Presidential Address: Mining Institute of Scotland - Which Way Forward?
Babs Oyeneyin, Robert Gordon University
The Energy industry is at a crossroads in terms of sustainable supply worldwide and needs competent personnel to deliver. A key challenge is the high attrition rate of young competent staff with the industry dominated by ‘'RIPs''[Retiring Industry Professionals]. This year's Presidential Address by Babs Oyeneyin explores the challenges, and the opportunity for the Mining Institute of Scotland to make a difference with some ‘'radical'' suggestions on programmes/activities to motivate the upcoming Young Professionals into becoming active members of the Energy family.
March 2011: Underground Coal Gasification: the acceptable face of coal mining?
Peter Dryburgh - Wardell-Armstrong
Coal has been the fasting growing global fuel for much of the past decade. Continued expansion presents two key challenges:
- Alternatives to conventional underground mining that enables the energy to be realised without large scale mine development?
- Methods to access the world’s remaining coal resources which are too deep for conventional underground mining to reach?
Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) offers the potential to solve both of these problems.
March 2010: Borehole surveying in mining, quarrying and oil exploration
Dr James Tweedie - GeoMEM Ltd
The need to survey was recognised as early as the 1870s just over a decade after the first mechanised drill was developed for oil exploration. Until 1929 the most used (and unsafe) method of acid etch provided only low accuracy information about borehole inclination. In 1929 Sperry introduced the SURWEL Gyroscope which delivered both inclination and direction and the borehole surveying was born. Since then there has been continuous development of surveying instruments and methods with major boosts in the late 20th century to the present as computing power increased and electronic components and sensors were miniaturised. This process continues apace today. Knowledge of borehole paths is essential in most industries in which drilling is involved, including Oil & Gas, Mining, Quarrying and Engineering/Construction. It is required to locate the position of the various data that are obtained whilst drilling, either by sampling or logging and, hence, allow accurate interpretation and planning and reduction of risk for later processes.
The main challenge now is to survey to a known accuracy. This requires understanding of the instrument being used, it's method of surveying and data processing and the constraints imposed by the borehole and surrounding environment.
January 2010: Field Installation, Reliance MA-D6, Bay of Bengal
Mamud Mohamed - Aker Solutions
The MA-D6 project in the Bay of Bengal is one of the largest FPSO projects in the world. The presentation describes the technical challenges of the project, and for those new to subsea field developments, allow an insight into this often hidden world.
December 2009: Mineral Research in UK Universities
A two day conference on minerals research in UK universities held at the Royal School of Mines in London. The conference, which was organized by the International Mining and Minerals Association (IMMa), provided an opportunity for post-graduate research students to make short presentations on their thesis research topics to an audience of their peers and representatives from the minerals industry. The objectives of the conference were to help students hone their presentational skills and to interact with other minerals research groups, as well as to publicise themselves and their work to potential employers.
December 2009: Friction Grip Casing Hanger
Brent Harrald, Plexus Ocean Systems
For the past decade, Plexus Ocean Systems of Aberdeen has designed and supplied innovative POS-GRIP wellheads to the oil and gas industry. POS-GRIP is a 'friction grip' system that utilizes externally applied compression to squeeze a wellhead housing in order to support casing and tubing hangers, as well as to set high-grade metal-to-metal seals. This technology enables many new wellhead products, as well as providing some interesting engineering challenges. This presentation will cover design, construction, installation, and operation of this unique technology, and review some of the notable engineering methodologies that were utilized to develop this product.
November 2009: Using Platelets to Restore Integrity
Nick Ryan, Group Chief Scientist, Brinker Technology
Using the same process that the body utilises to clot blood, it is now possible to plug leaks in pipes and wells to restore integrity. The presentation explained how elastomeric platelets can be designed and used to cure leaks in valves, potable water pipes, water injection pipes, subsea umbilical control lines and gas pipes, and more recently in oil wells by sealing tubing and casing leaks in both producing and water injection wells.
October 2009: Presidential Address - A comparison of mining and offshore safety legislation
Margaret Copland, President MIS
Safety legislation for the mining and offshore industries exists to protect the workers and others affected by those activities. The presentation looks at the development of the two regimes and compares prescription versus goal setting approaches. It considers the future of the legislative regimes and asks the question - is goal setting or prescription best?
March 2009: Piper, Past Present & Future
Julian Slater & Dr Maurice Bamford, Talisman Energy (UK) Ltd
The presentation focusses on the subsurface aspects of the Piper oil field development. Piper is a field that shows exceptionally high oil recovery and this talk will outline the reasons for this. The presentation discusses the following topics:
Regional geological setting
Piper reservoir container
Piper reservoir properties
Piper oil properties
How the oil has been recovered
The current mode of operation
How we predict Piper behaviour in the future
February 2009: The Biological Basis for Biofuel Technology
David Brignall, Technical Director, Wardell Armstrong
Biofuels are a form of “bioenergy” produced from “biomass” feedstocks. Currently, the types of biomass used to produce biofuels are energy crops including sugar cane, and oilseed rape. In the future, other forms of biomass may also be used for the production of biofuels. There are three biofuels that have potential in terms of the transport sector: ethanol, biodiesel and biogas.
Biofuels, have received substantial support from many governments due to the potential for:
· Greenhouse gas (GHG) savings in relation to fossil fuels;
· Diversification of the supply of transport fuels including perceived fuel security benefits; and
· New agricultural markets and rural development and diversification opportunities.
Since 2000, global bioethanol supply has doubled to over 40 billion litres in 2007, dominated by Brazilian sugar cane and US maize. Biodiesel production is significantly lower but has expanded in the last 4 years to around 10 billion litres in 2007. Biodiesel use is centred in the EU. Biogas production and use is currently only viable on a commercial basis in Sweden.
In the UK, supply of biofuels is encouraged through a duty derogation and the Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation 5 (RTFO). The Obligation requires a 2.5% by volume contribution in transport fuel supply from biofuels by 2008/9 rising to 3.75% in 2009/10 and 5% by 2010/11. The substitution of biofuels in transport is of particular interest because transportation is estimated to 21% of global GHG emissions.
Because there are numerous potential and existing landuses combined with a variety of agricultural practices associated with the development of biofuels, there is tremendous variation in factors such as soil type, water availability and climatic conditions that will influence the ability to increase in biofuel production. In addition ecology factors associated with biofuel crop production are radically different in different regions of the world. Furthermore, because biofuels production competes with food crop production, specifically through substitution of food crops for biofuel, or alternative use of agricultural
land for non-food cropping, there are potential socio-economic and environmental factors that must also be taken into account should biofuel crop production increase.
The potential direct impacts of biofuel production include:
· Habitat destruction (particularly in Amazonia for soy and South-East Asia for palm oil);
· Local environmental impacts upon air, water and soil quality and exacerbation of local water supply concerns; and
· A range of social issues including poor working conditions for labourers and reported loss of land rights for indigenous peoples where new plantations for feedstock are established.
Indirect impacts include:
· Rising food prices in particular the effect upon food security for the poor;
· The displacement of agricultural production onto uncultivated areas with impacts on biodiversity,
· Change in landuse, with consequential effects on carbon cycling of both natural and agricultural systems
Support for biofuels as a substitute for fossil transport fuels must be based on the premise that the switch would result in a positive effect in term of climate change, without specific and detrimental impacts in terms food production, biodiversity and socio-economic factors. As a consequence detailed research has been undertaken by UK Government, and others to quantify the scale of impact and derive best practice approach for the future development of the sector, as a whole.
January 2009: Deepwater AX-STM Subsea Well Intervention
The demand for lower cost subsea well intervention techniques is well established, with an increasing number of installed and projected subsea wells worldwide. In addition, the maintenance needs of these wells will increase significantly in the foreseeable future. This has led to the design of a system which is autonomous and also eliminates the need for rig-based intervention. This greatly reduces intervention costs, while allowing enormous deployment flexibility in terms of reduced response time for mobilisation and transit between, and within, field locations.
Expro's deepwater AX-STM (pronounced "access") system brings cost-effective, riser-less intervention to deepwater wells. Expro's goal is to deliver a full range of wireline intervention services in deepwater wells at significantly less than the cost of using a rig.
AX-STM marks a step change in the well flow management of subsea wells. It is about remote wireline intervention in deepwater wells, as opposed to conventional manual operations on a vessel. It provides a safer, deeper and cheaper alternative to using a
rig or conventional wire-through-water intervention system.
This presentation will describe the key technology aspects of the system. The AX-STM system is deployed onto a subsea tree with an active heave-compensated fibre rope winch from a monohull vessel, and is remotely controlled from the surface like an ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle). It consists of an integrated set of pressure-contained subsea packages comprising well control, wireline tools, wireline winch and fluid injection functions.
A hydraulic plug-pulling tool overcomes the risks associated with pulling and setting tree plugs. A novel control umbilical overcomes to challenges of weight and size.
Our subsea vision is driven by our customers' needs to close the recovery gap between subsea and dry-tree fields. AX-STM represents a significant technological breakthrough over what is possible today and will add materially to the capabilities of our customers to extract more oil from deepwater wells.
November 2008: Churchill's Greatest Secret - Discovery and Development of Oil Production at Dukes Wood, Eakring, Nottinghamshire
Kevin Topham, Museum Curator
It was said to be Sir Winston Churchill's greatest secret, in fact before the discovery of oil in Dukes Wood, near the Nottinghsmshire village of Eakring, it was said to be "one of" his greatest worries. Oil became the life blood of the second world war and without it Britain would soon become defenceless. As war time Britain's oil demand soon began to exceed its supply coming mainly from America and the Middle East, oil tankers became easy targets for the U Boat wolfpacks attacking the allied convoys. If Britain was to survive an answer had to be found and every conceivable idea was considered, even alternative fuels, and eventually searching for oil under Britain's soil became a possibility.
Britain's ally, america has the expertise to explore and drill for oil, and so with great secrecy, the Darcy Oil Company was contacted and plans made to bring American oil men and equipment across the North Atlantic and bring on production from potential locations. The impetus for exploring for oil at Dukes Wood may have come from the fact that at the nearby Bilsthorpe colliery, oil seeps were common in the coal mine. The pit was situated down dip of the "Eakring anticline" and the drilling at the Dukes Wood site penetrated the structure higher up dip, with 215 oil wells producing 4 million barrels of oil, which was crucial to the war effort.
Due to its strategic importance to relieving the pressure for oil supplies on the convoys, drilling operations were carried out under great secrecy and teh crude oil produced from Dukes Wood and Eakring oil fileds was loaded via the colliery rail sidings at Blisthorpe and exported to Pumpherson refinery near Edinburgh.
The Uk oil industry expanded operations posr war in the East Midlands area, and became a proving ground for many future senior BP management (including Dave Harding - who the North Sea Harding field is named after) and for technologies now commonly used in the industry - Sir Frank Whittle field trialled the turbo drill on the East Midlans oilfields in the 1950s and early 1960s. Some of those who gained early expereience went on to work overseas for Anglo Iranian as Middle East reserves were accessed and brought into production. their knowledge and experience was sought again in the 1960s as the UK's search for hydrocarbons moved offshore.
These early pioneers of the indutsry were known as the "Mansfield Mafia".
Link to Dukes Wood Museum website: http://www.dukeswoodoilmuseum.co.uk/
October 2008: Presidential Address - The Energy Story
Martin Cox, President MIS
The need for reliable energy supply of sufficient capacity is essential for the future of our economy as is the growing requirement to in part replace and expand the existing system. The Mining Institute has a long track record of achievement in the production of energy and of the environment in which it takes place. The knowledge and experience retained with its Membership supported the development of working structures and links within industry that enabled the creation and application of technologies to move coal production from a dangerous labour intensive activity in a subsistence economy, through the expansion of output that powered the industrial revolution and on into the late 20th century to an efficient and highly mechanised process. The retained knowledge base is a valuable asset and has much to add to the future development of energy from all sources and without it, it will take longer and the lessons of the past will have to be relearned. By looking at the three major forms of energy supply – coal, oil & gas, and nuclear – common themes and patterns in their stages of development can be identified and thought given to how and where we can input the Institutes’ experience into the energy sector. Future energy production will include the need to control and reduce the products produced and/or emitted while collecting and converting energy into a useable form and delivering it to the consumer, creating an increased demand for rare metals and minerals. Again in depth experience is held within the Institute to pick up this issue and will be fully supported by the ‘energy block’.
December 2007: Evolution of heavy oil mining and in-situ extraction techniques from the Alberta Tar Sands
Scott Brown, Nexen
The speaker began by presenting the case for oil (tar) sands. There was an estimated 163.5 billion barrels of oil economically recoverable equivalent to 11% of the world's oil reserves. Production was economic at 35-40$ per barrel. The current price of oil was 90$ per barrel. The Athabasca deposit is the only large oil sands reservoir in the world which is suitable for large-scale surface mining.
The Athabasca Oil Sands contain 11% bitumen, 5% water, and 84% solids (primarily quartz). The recovery techniques included Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), which has been developed to extract bitumen from deep deposits by injecting steam to heat the sands and reduce the bitumen viscosity so that it can be pumped out like conventional crude oil.wells. It was important to keep the Steam to Oil Ratio (SOR) to as low as possible. One of the main problems is unconsolidated soil.
Economic drivers included the cost of natural gas, product quality, and successful project execution. Nevertheless, the major challenges were reclamation and the environment, continuous innovation, and community development. It is estimated that the reserves have a life expectancy of 100 years.
January 2008: The role of well logging in coal bed methane extraction
Roger Samworth, Weatherford UK Ltd
February 2008: Enhancing and sustaining production from maturing gas fields: the value of gas well deliquifaction
Dr W Schinagl, BP
February 2008: Material Challenges for North Sea Oil & Gas production
Eur Ing. Steve Bedford BEng CEng MIMMM
Keynote presentation at the ITF Advanced Materials Workshop, 21st February 2008
Download full presentation (PDF 2mb)
October 2006: Presidential Address - The Energy Story
Eur Ing. Steve Bedford BEng CEng MIMMM
The 2006 Presidential Address was opened with a safety moment outlining the background to and ongoing wide scale destruction caused by a mud volcano near Surabaya, Indonesia that erupted following problems encountered drilling a gas exploration well. This highlighted the destructive power of nature that can be unleashed when things go wrong and the responsibilities on everyone engaged in the Energy/Mining business. The formal address began with an overview of global energy demand and supply from 1970 through to 2030, highlighting the growth forecast and the drivers behind this position. Utilising data from the 2006 UK Energy Review, the current energy mix was presented along with the strategic changes that will result from the need for the UK to react to the dramatic decline in domestic North Sea gas production. Within the time frame covered by the Review fossil fuels, oil and gas in particular, will remain key to meeting the UK energy needs. An overview of typical existing UK domestic oil and gas producing fields was presented in chronological order, along with the key points for each, starting with onshore fields from the 1950s and moving through to the latest sub sea developments in the North Atlantic. Each of the key issues affecting the oil and gas operating environment was then covered, with a particular focus on factors that will enable increased recovery of domestic oil and gas resources. The presentation concluded with thoughts on the role that The Mining Institute of Scotland could play in helping to address the Energy Challenge.
November 2006: Development of the Ormen Lange Gas Field
James Edgar, Shell
The Ormen Lange field laying 100km off the Norwegian coast is being developed by Norske Shell who is the production operator along with Norske Hydro, Statoil, Petoro, Dong & ExxonMobil (full details of the operators and their share of the project can be viewed on http://www.hydro.com/, along with facts, figures and animations of construction phases of the project).
With an excellent presentation backed up with 3D graphical images of sub sea, down Hole (inside the gas wells), and pipeline equipment laid on the sea bed, James described the engineering efforts that have been underway to access the gas reserves stored in the reservoir which is some 40 km long x 8 km wide, 3000m below the seabed, and the seabed its self being 800-1100m below the surface.
Also described was the Storegga slide, a major geological event occurring 7-8,000 years ago, the risks this posed to the project, how these were evaluated and a glimpse of the routing of the pipeline through what is a sub sea mountain range back to the gas processing plant at Nyhamna on the Norwegian coast.
The Ormen Lange field is expected to provide 20% of the UK's gas over the coming decade, and is to be piped from Nyhamna via the Sleipner offshore platform to Easington on the east coast through the large diameter Langeled gas export pipeline, which is in its self the world's longest export pipeline and is capable of handling 20 billion cubic metres of gas per year.
Download full presentation (PDF 4.75mb) Courtesy of the Mining Institute of Scotland
December 2006; Developments in Coalbed Methane Extraction Using Oilfield Technology in North America and Scotland
Steve Jewell, Composite Energy & Jim O'Leary, BP
The exploitation of coal bed methane relies on the desorption process. Although in its infancy in the UK, it has been used in the USA since the early 1960s. Jim O'Leary, Wells Team Leader, San Juan North Major Project, BP in the USA and Steve Jewell, Chief Operating Officer, Composite Energy in the UK presented their different projects on a four-way link between Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Houston and London. They described their respective projects, explaining the challenges and design issues affecting coalbed methane wells.
In the San Juan Basin, BP has 1,020 wells producing 650 million cu ft per day. The current programme envisaged drilling 1,000 additional wells at a capex of 100$ million per annum. Five seams were being targeted at an average depth of 2,500 ft. The coal seams were in the Upper Cretaceous. Future developments include fracture stimulation. There is also a coil tubing development pilot to evaluate CTD hybrid drilling against conventional rotary steerable tools.
In the UK the first licences were issued in the 1990s. Composite Energy secured its PEDL 133 licence in 2004 and completed its initial work programme by March 2005. In Scotland, the coal seams are in the Carboniferous and suffer from low permeability. Nevertheless, the estimate of gas resource is substantial. There are multiple commercial options in the area. Composite Energy has taken the approach of being the drilling rig owner and operator. The company plan to drill a six well pilot at Airth and a six well pilot at Longannet. Both up-dip (American) and down-dip (Australian) techniques will be applied. It was noted that the Composite Energy presentation was the first time this information had been made publicly available.
January 2007: Developments in the Disposal of Drilling Waste from Offshore Oil and Gas Wells
Bryan Chambers, BP
The presentation commenced by looking at how drilling wastes are generated. This was developed by characterizing the wells of the North Sea, defining the role of the drilling fluid and the nature of the waste. In terms of scale, there can be 200-1,000 Mt/well of oil-based contaminated cuttings and 160-800K litres/well of oil-based contaminated seawater.
Dealing with the waste streams was regulated by the Offshore Chemical Regulations 2002. Water-based fluids could be discharged to sea along with the cuttings except on sand banks. The industry was moving to zero discharge for oil-based fluids. Techniques included annulus injection and cuttings collection systems. Cuttings brought to shore would undergo thermal processing prior to landfill.
The speaker thought that for the future offshore processing is the key. The industry was looking at alternative technologies (e.g. microwave), interfield transfer and improved water handling systems. He concluded that offshore impacts are now negligible compared to where it was in the 70s/80s.
February 2007: Developing the Next Generation of Engineers for the Energy Industry
Duncan Stephen, RGU
March 2007: Miller Field Decarbonised Fuels Project
The United Kingdom and the European Union are actively looking for ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere in an attempt to reduce environmental change. This presentation provided an engineering overview of a proposal to eliminate carbon dioxide emissions to atmosphere from the Peterhead power station. The proposal involved construction of onshore facilities to separate North Sea natural gas into hydrogen and carbon, conversion of the Peterhead power station to run on hydrogen and export of the carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) to the depleted North Sea Miller oilfield. Offshore facilities would be constructed on the Miller platform to inject the carbon dioxide into the depleted oil Reservoir and process re-cycled carbon dioxide thereby extending the Field life and increasing hydrocarbon recovery. This was the first proposed project of its kind in the world.
Postscript: Subsequent to this presentation Government support for the project was not obtained and so abandonment of the Miller Field was initiated in the summer of 2007. Further decarbonised fuel projects are proposed in other Countries.
Eur Ing Col Roberts
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Offshore Geomechanics: The Foundation Improvement Project of the 'NRA'
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