2018 YPLC - LMS Local Heat
London Materials Society Young Person's Lecture Competition Local Heat
The London region of the Young Persons Lecture Competition for students and professionals up to the age of 28 will deliver a 15 minute lecture on a topic related to materials, minerals, mining, packaging, clay technology and wood science.
The select candidates will compete in the regional final held in London. Competitors must be 28 or under on 1 June 2018.
For more information on the competition, visit the YPLC page on this website
Guilherme Augusto Ferreira Francisco, from Federal University of Minas Gerais
The electric concrete is a steel-based system that is able to melt snow and ice on its surface. The system is prepared with a mixture of wet concrete (cement, sand, and water) and also a dosage around 20 percent of steel shavings and a fine powder called “coke breeze”, both of which are industrial waste products. Once the mix is ready, it is poured over a series of steel bars. When the finished slabs are connected to a power source via steel rods inserted inside the concrete, they can generate heat that will spread to the concrete’s surface. Once energized, the system conducts a mild current, generating just enough heat to keep precipitation above the freezing point. The system has significant potential in cold-weather transportation infrastructure.
RAPID AND SENSITIVE DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN FOOD USING FUNCTIONALISED GOLD NANOPARTICLES
Zexiang Brady Han, from Imperial College London
Even though antibiotics have prompted a dramatic decrease in illnesses and deaths since the 1940s, large doses of antibiotics residues in food can cause health problems in themselves and by driving the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Functionalised gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), with their fascinating surface plasmon resonance, can be used as colourimetric sensors for rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic residues in food. A special focus will be put on detection of gentamicin in this talk. This colourimetric method is based on aggregation of gold nanoparticles, whose effect is visible to the naked eye. Extent of aggregation can be quantified using UV-Vis spectroscopy and visualised using transmission electron microscopy. Further research can be performed to test and optimise functionalised AuNPs for detection of other antibiotics and food contaminants and to use surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous analysis of multiple antibiotics.
THE BLUE LED: CHALLENGE OF THE MILLENNIUM
Seif Mehanna, from Imperial College London
The invention of the blue LED and laser diode, which was the subject of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics, resulted in a flurry of technical innovation, such as Blu-Rays in optical data storage, energy-efficient white LEDs, and enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy in the biomedical world.
The blue LED in particular was a challenge due to the need to find a suitable semiconductor, and the need for a near-perfect crystal. Before the research by Nakamura, Akasaki, and Amano, the only blue LEDs were made of low power SiC, and the GaN crystals which were needed for high power LEDs contained too many defects.
Later research led to creation of high purity GaN via metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, which allowed for the first high power blue LEDs. Later on, InGaN was discovered to have similar properties, and is now used in the creation of cheap LEDs, photovoltaic cells, and quantum heterostructures.
HOW TO CLEAN THE ENVIRONMENT USING SUGARS? OR BIOMASS DERIVED CARBON MATERIALS FOR CO2 CAPTURE
Sabina Alexandra Nicolae, from Queen Mary University of London
High emission of carbon dioxide is a matter of great concern around the globe. Being one of the greenhouse gases, together with CH4, H2O vapour, ozone, CO2 absorbs and emits radiations in the wavelengths range emitted by the Earth. In this way is created the greenhouse effect, the primary cause of global warming. The main source of this, is represented by human activities, and despite all the efforts devoted to minimize the CO2 emission over the time, its concentration has increased from 280 ppm, in 1750, up to 406 ppm in 2017. Our aim is to use biomass derived precursor for the synthesis of porous carbon materials able to trap CO2.In this talk will be presented methods for synthesis of porous carbon materials, mainly focused on hydrothermal carbonisation and derived from carbohydrates, together with some preliminary results for CO2 adsorption. Our future work is focused on controlling the porosity and improve the CO2 adsorption capacities.
TIME TO SHINE: NITROGEN-DOPED CARBON DOTS/TIO2 HYBRIDIZATION FOR VISIBLE LIGHT PHOTOCATALYTIC ENHANCEMENT
Hui Luo, from Queen Mary University of London
In order to address the challenge of pushing forward sustainable energy technologies to achieve low-cost solar fuels derived from abundant materials, it is essential to explore new types of materials to find those with desirable properties that meet these criteria. Due to the unique photoluminescence behaviour, photo-induced electron transfer property, electron donor and acceptor role in hybridizing with other photoactive materials, carbon dots (CDs) are potentially considered to be an efficient component in the construction of high-performance photocatalysts, as well as a photosensitizer or a spectral converter along with other semiconductor materials in the photocatalytic processes. Here we report the nitrogen-doped carbon dots produced via hydrothermal carbonisation can act as photocatalyst. Their photoactivity increases after hybridization with the well-known semiconductor material, TiO2. Theories about the mechanism has been raised, and future characterization work will be done to divulge how the excited states can affect the photoelectrochemical reaction.
5.30pm - Tea/Coffee
6.00pm - Lecture competition
7.30pm - Buffet